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The development of writing proficiency is a central concern in language learning, particularly for students of English as a second language (ESL) and English as a foreign language (EFL). Among the language skills, writing is known to be one of the most complex and challenging to acquire in EFL contexts. Several issues impede progress in writing, including grammatical errors, text organization, and outlining ideas.
One of the primary challenges in EFL instruction is the limited interaction time available during classes. This is partly due to the implementation of the K-13 curriculum and difficulties in learning English. In the past, EFL students received four hours of instruction per week, but this has been reduced to two hours per week in the current curriculum.
Indonesian EFL learners often face difficulties in writing due to interference from their mother tongue’s orthography. This suggests that instruction in EFL writing in Indonesia may require more time and effort, given the influence of the mother tongue on writing.
Regarding the integration of technology into EFL teaching and learning, the flipped classroom and hybrid learning are often used interchangeably, despite important differences. While the use of technology in the flipped classroom is optional, it is mandatory in hybrid mode. The flipped classroom is a content delivery approach that initiates the learning process by assigning EFL students to pre-recorded videos or teaching handouts. Following this, the EFL teacher introduces learning topics through homework, which involves watching or reading the handout before classroom instruction. The classroom session is then designed as an extended activity to consolidate and reinforce learning content.
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